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  • Prof.  Francesca Levi-Schaffer
Prof Francesca Levi-Schaffer
​Research Interest 

        ·        eosinophils and mast cells as effector cells in allergic inflammation: characterization of new receptors/ligands

        ·        hypoxia/angiogenesis and eosinophils

        ·        asthma

        ·        atopic dermatitis

        ·        allergic rhinitis  

        ·        immunopharmacological modulation of allergic diseases by bispecific recombinant antibodies

        ·        bacteria interactions with eosinophils and mast cells

        ·        the allergic effector unit

        ·        mast cell derived tumors: new antibody based treatment

        ·        the allergic inflammation and the resolvome

        ·        non IgE-mediated mast cell activation in diseases



Lab Members
Nadine Landolina
Hadas Pahima
Dalia Pickholtz
Piergio Puzzovio
Mansour Seaf
Revital Shamri
Ilan Zaffran


Levi-Schaffer, F. and Smolarsky, M. (1981). Schistosoma mansoni: effect of insulin and a low-molecular-weight fraction of serum on schitosomula in chemically defined media. Exp. Parasitol. 52:378-385.
Franco, P., Veronese, F., Levi(-Schaffer), F., Goldin, A. and Nicolin, A. (1982). Antibody- dependent cellular cytotoxicity against drug induced antigens in L5178y mouse lymphoma. Br. J. Cancer. 46:173-179, 1982.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Bernstein, A., Meshorer, A. and Arnon, R. (1982). Reduced toxicity of daunorubicin by conjugation to dextran. Cancer Treat. Rep. 66:107-114.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Schryer, M.D. and Smolarsky, M. (1982). The resistance of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni to antibodies and complement in vitro does not correlate with the binding of antibodies to the surface of the parasite. J. Immunol. 129:2744-2751.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Schryer, M.D., Tarrab-Hazdai, R. and Smolarsky, M. (1983). A method of introducing lipid-conjugated antigens into the surface of schistosomula. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32:343-349.
Tarrab-Hazdai, R., Levi-Schaffer, F., Smolarsky, M. and Arnon, R. (1984). Acetylcholinesterase of Schistosoma mansoni: Antigenic cross-reactivity with Electrophorus electricus and its functional implications. Eur. J. Immunol. 14:205-209.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Tarrab-Hazdai, R., Meshulam, H. and Arnon, R. (1984). Effect of phosphonium salts and phosphoranes on the acetylcholinesterase activity and on the viability of Schistosoma mansoni parasites. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 6:619-627.
Levi Schaffer, F., Tarrab-Hazdai, R., Schryer, M.D., Arnon, R. and Smolarsky, M. (1984). Isolation and partial characterization of the tegumental outer membrane of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 13:283-300.
Tarrab-Hazdai, R., Levi-Schaffer, F., Gonzales, G. and Arnon, R. (1984). Acetylcholinesterase of Schistosoma mansoni. Molecular forms of solubilized enzyme. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 790:61-69.
Hazdai, R.T., Levi-Schaffer, F., Brenner, V., Horowitz, S., Eshhar, Z. and Arnon, R. (1985). Protective monoclonal antibody against Schistosoma mansoni: antigen isolation, characterization, and suitability for active immunization. J. Immunol. 135:2772-2779.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Austen, K.F., Caulfield, J.P., Hein, A., Bloes, W.F. and Stevens, R.L. (1985). Fibroblasts maintain the phenotype and viability of the rat heparin-containing mast cell in vitro. J. Immunol. 135:3454-3462.
Marikovsky, M., Levi-Schaffer, F., Arnon, R. and Fishelson Z. (1986). Schistosoma mansoni: killing of transformed schistosomula by the alternative pathway of human complement. Exp. Parasitol. 61:86-94.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Tarrab-Hazdai, R., Arnon, R. and Smolarsky, M. (1986). A novel lipid-conjugated marker for the direct labeling of the schistosomulum membrane. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 35:544-548.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Austen, K.F., Gravallese, P.M. and Stevens, R.L. (1986). Coculture of interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells with fibroblasts results in a phenotypic change of the mast cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83:6485-6488.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Austen, K.F., Caulfield, J.P., Hein, A., Gravallese, P.M. and Stevens. R.L. (1987). Co-culture of human lung-derived mast cells with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts: morphology and IgE-mediated release of histamine, prostaglandin D2, and leukotrienes. J. Immunol. 139:494-500.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Dayton, E.T., Austen, K.F., Hein, A., Caufield, J.P., Gravallese, P.M., Liu, F.T. and Stevens, R.L. (1987). Mouse bone-marrow derived mast cells cocultured with fibroblasts. Morphology and stimulation-induced release of histamine, leukotriene B4, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2. J. Immunol. 139:3431-3441.
Dayton, E.T., Pharr, .P, Ogawa, M., Serafin, W.E., Austen, K.F., Levi-Schaffer, F. and Stevens, R.L. (1988). 3T3 fibroblasts induce cloned interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cells to resemble connective tissue mast cells in their granular constituency. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85:569-572.
Katz, H.R., Dayton, E.T., Levi-Schaffer, F., Benson, A.C., Austen, K.F. and Stevens, R.L. (1988). Coculture of mouse IL-3-dependent mast cells with 3T3 fibroblasts stimulates synthesis of globopentaosylceramide (Forssman glycolipid) by fibroblasts and surface expression on both populations. J. Immunol. 140:3090-3097.
Levi-Schaffer, F. and Reisel, N. (1989). In vitro regeneration of activated rat peritoneal mast cells cocultured with 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell. Immunol. 119:30-40.
Levi-Schaffer, F. and Shalit, M. (1989). Differential release of histamine and prostaglandin D2 in rat peritoneal mast cells activated with peptides. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 90:352-357.
Levi-Schaffer, F. and Bar-Shavit, Z. (1990). Osteoblast-like cell line maintains in vitro rat peritoneal mast cell viability and functional activity. Immunology. 69:145-149.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Mekori, Y.A., Segal, V. and Claman, H.N. (1990). Histamine release from mouse and rat mast cells cultured with supernatants from chronic murine graft-vs-host-splenocytes. Cell. Immunol. 127:146-158.
Levi-Schaffer, F. and Kupietzky, A. (1990). Mast cells enhance migration and proliferation of fibroblasts into an in vitro wound. Exp. Cell Res. 188:42-49.
Shalit, M. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1990). Auranofin inhibits histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 12:403-407.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Gare, M. and Shalit, M. (1990). Unresponsiveness of rat peritoneal mast cells to immunologic reactivation. J. Immunol. 145:3418-3424.
Levi-Schaffer, F. and Riesel-Yaron, N. (1990). Effects of prolonged incubation of rat peritoneal mast cells with compound 48/80. Eur. J. Immunol. 20:2609-2613.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Segal, V. and Shalit, M. (1991). Effects of interleukins on connective tissue type mast cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. Immunology. 72:174-180.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Segal, V., Mekori, Y.A., Claman, H.N. and Hammel, I. (1991). Morphological evidence for chronic mast cell activation after prolonged exposure with supernatants from chronic graft-versus-host splenocytes. Immunol. Lett. 27:13-18.
Shalit, M., Tedeschi, A., Miadonna, A. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1991). Desferal (desferrioxamine)--a novel activator of connective tissue-type mast cells. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 88:854-860.
Levi-Schaffer, F. and Touitou, E. (1991). Xanthines inhibit 3T3 fibroblast proliferation. Skin Pharmacol. 4:286-290.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Riesel, N., Soffer, D., Abramsky, O. and Brenner, T. (1991). Mast cell activity in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Mol. Chem. Neuropathol. 15:173-184.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Klapholz, L., Kupietsky, A., Weinrauch, L., Shalit, M. and Okon, E. (1991). Increased numbers of mast cells in pemphigus vulgaris skin lesions. A histochemical study. Acta Derm. Venereol. 71:269-271.
Touitou, E., Levi-Schaffer, F., Shaco-Ezra, N., Ben Yosseph, R. and Fabin, B. (1991). Enhanced permeation of theophylline through the skin and its effects on fibroblast proliferation. Int. J. Pharmaceutics 70:159-166.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Segal, V., Baram, D. and Mekori, Y.A. (1992). Effect of coculture of rodent mast cells with murine chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD)-derived fibroblasts. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 89:501-509.
Stevens, R.L., Somerville, L.L., Sewell, D., Swafford, J.R., Caulfield, J.P., Levi-Schaffer, F., Hubbard, J.R. and Dayton, E.T. (1992). Serosal mast cells maintain their viability and promote the metabolism of cartilage proteoglycans when cocultured with chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum. 35:325-335.
Shalit, M., Riesel-Yaron, N. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1992). Nedocromil sodium modulates the function of long-term rat peritoneal mast cell cultures. Pharmacol. Res. 26:293-303.
Vourka-Karussis, U., Levi-Schaffer, F. and Slavin, S. (1993). Investigations on the role of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory agents on the treatment of murine B cell leukemia by recombinant human interleukin-2. Exp. Hematol. 21:93-97.
Shalit, M., Brenner, T., Shohami, E. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1993). Interaction between mast cells and glial cells: an in vitro study. J. Neuroimmunol. 43:195-199.
Levi-Schaffer, F. and Shalit, M. (1993). Proliferation and functional responses of bone marrow-derived mast cells after activation. Cell. Immunol. 148:435-443.
Shalit, M., Pickholz, D. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1993). Mast cells retain their responsiveness upon continuous and repetitive exposure to antigen. Immunology. 79:319-324.
Touitou, E., Levi-Schaffer, F., Dayan, N., Alhaique, F. and Riccieri, F.(1994). Modulation of caffeine skin delivery by carrier design: liposomes versus permeation enhancers. Int. J. Pharm. 103:131-136.
Brenner, T., Sofer, D., Shalit, M. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1994). Mast cells in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: characterization, distribution in the CNS and in vitro activation by myelin basic protein and neuorpeptides. J. Neurol. Sci. 122:210-213.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Lacy, P., Severs, N.J., Newman, T.M., North, J., Gomperts, B., Kay, A.B. and Moqbel, R. (1995). Association of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor with the crystalloid granules of human eosinophils. Blood. 85:2579-2586.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Kelav-Appelbaum, R. and Rubinchik, E. (1995). Human foreskin mast cell viability and functional activity is maintained ex vivo by coculture with fibroblasts. Cell. Immunol. 162:211-216.
Levi-Schaffer, F. and Rubinchik, E. (1995). Activated mast cells are fibrogenic for 3T3 fibroblasts. J. Invest. Dermatol. 104:999-1003.
Barak, V., Levi-Schaffer, F., Nissman, B. and Nagler, A. (1995). Cytokine dysregulation in chronic graft versus host disease. Leuk. Lymphoma. 17:169-173.
Nagler, A., Segal, V., Slavin, S. and Levi-Schaffer F. (1995). Ketotifen therapy in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD): effect on mast cells and fibroblasts. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 100:529-535.
Shalit, M. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1995). Challenge of mast cells with increasing amounts of antigen induces desensitization. Clin. Exp. Allergy. 25:896-902.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Klapholz, L., Weinrauch, L. and Shalit, M. (1995). Coculture of mast cells with psoriatic fibroblasts: an experimental system for studying the two cell interactions. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 4:230-234.
Rubinchik, E., Norris, A. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1995). Modulation of histamine release from mast cells by interkeukin-2 is affected by nedocromil sodium. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 17:563-570.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Baram, D., Segal, V., Garbuzenko, E., Lew, S. and Mekori, Y.A. (1995). Prostaglandin E2 production by chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease dermal fibroblasts. Immunol. Lett. 48:11-15.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Dayan, N. and Touitou, E. (1996). Diethylene glycol ether (Transcutol) displays antiproliferative properties alone and in combination with xanthines. Skin Pharmacol. 9:53-59.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Barkans, J., Newman, T.M., Ying, S., Wakelin, M., Hohenstein, R., Barak, V., Lacy, P., Kay, A.B. and Moqbel, R. (1996). Identification of Interleukin-2 in human peripheral blood eosinophils. Immunology. 87:155-161.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Nagler, A., Slavin, S., Knopov, V. and Pines, M. (1996). Inhibition of collagen synthesis and changes in skin morphology in murine Graft-versus-Host Disease and tight skin mice: effect of halofuginone. J. Invest. Dermatol. 106:84-88.
Nagler, A., Goldenhersh, M.A., Levi-Schaffer, F., Bystryn, J.C. and Klaus, S.N. (1996). Total leukoderma: a rare manifestation of cutaneous chronic Graft-versus-Host disease (cGVHD). Br. J. Dermatol. 134:780-783.
Rubinchik, E. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1996). Interleukin-2 inhibits 3T3 fibroblast proliferation. Life Sci. 58:1509-1517.
Kupietzky, A. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1996). The role of mast cell­derived histamine in the closure of an in vitro wound. Inflamm. Res. 45:176-180.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Shani, J., Politi, Y., Rubinchik, E. and Brenner, S. (1996). Inhibition of proliferation of psoriatic and healthy fibroblasts in cell culture by selected Dead-sea salts. Pharmacology. 52:321-328.
Halevy, O., Nagler, A., Levi-Schaffer, F., Genina, O. and Pines, M. (1996). Inhibition of collagen type I synthesis by skin fibroblasts of graft versus host disease and scleroderma patients: effect of halofuginone. Biochem. Pharmacol. 52:1057-1063.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Segal, V., Barak, V., Rubinchik, E. and Nagler, A. (1997). Regulation of the functional activity of mast cells and fibroblasts by mononuclear cells in murine and human chronic Graft-vs.-Host Disease. Exp. Hematol. 25:238-245.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Goldenhersh, M.A., Segal, V. and Nagler, A. (1997). Nedocromil sodium ameliorates skin manifestations in a murine model of chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 19:823-828.
Simon, H-U., Yousefi, S., Dibbert, B., Levi-Schaffer, F.and Blaser, K. (1997). Anti-apoptotic signals of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor are transduced via Jak2 tyrosine kinase in eosinophils. Eur. J. Immunol. 27:3536-3539.
Rubinchik, E., Shalit, M. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1998). Responsiveness of human skin mast cells to repeated activation: an in vitro study. Allergy. 53:14-19.
Nagler, A., Rivkind, A.I., Raphael, J., Levi-Schaffer, F., Genina, O., Lavelin, I. and Pines, M. (1998). Halofuginone - an inhibitor of collagen type I synthesis - prevents postoperative formation of abdominal adhesions. Ann. Surg. 227:575-582.
Simon, H.U., Yousefi, S., Dibbert, B., Hebestreit, H., Weber, M., Branch, D.R., Blaser, K., Levi-Schaffer, F. and Anderson, G.P. (1998). Role for tyrosine phosphorylation and Lyn tryrosine kinase in Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis in eosinophils. Blood. 92:547-557.
Lacy, P., Levi-Schaffer, F., Mahmudi-Azer, S., Bablitz, B., Hagen, S.C., Velasquez, J., Kay, A.B. and Moqbel, R. (1998). Intracellular localization of Interleukin-6 in eosinophils from atopic asthmatics and effects of Interferon g. Blood. 91:2508-2516.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Temkin, V., Malamud, V., Feld, S. and Zilberman, Y. (1998). Mast cells enhance eosinophil survival in vitro: role of TNF-a and Granulocyte-Macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J. Immunol. 160:5554-5562.
Walsh, G.M., Dewson, G., Wardlaw, A.J., Levi-Schaffer, F. and Moqbel, R. (1998). A comparative study of different methods for the assessment of apoptosis and necrosis in human eosinophils. J. Immunol. Methods. 217:153-163.
Solomon, A., Aloe, L., Pe’er, J., Frucht-Pery, J., Bonini, St., Bonini, Se. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1998). Nerve Growth Factor is preformed in and activates human peripheral blood eosinophils. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 102:454-460.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Garbuzenko, E., Rubin, A., Reich, R., Pickholz, D., Gillery, P., Emonard, H., Nagler, A. and Maquart, F.A.X. (1999). Human eosinophils regulate human lung- and skin-derived fibroblast properties in vitro: a role for Transforming Growth Factor-b (TGF-b). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 96(17):9660-9665. 
Berton, A., Levi-Schaffer, F., Emonard, H., Garbuzenko, E., Gillery, P. and Maquart, F-X. (2000). Activation of fibroblasts in collagen lattices by mast cell extract: a model of fibrosis. Clin. Exp. Allergy. 30:485-492.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Slovik, D., Armetti, L., Pickholtz, D., Touitou, E. (2000). Activation and inhibition of mast cells degranulation affect their morphometric parameters. Life Sci. 66:PL283-290.
Smith, S.J., Ying, S., Meng, Q., Sullivan, M.H., Barkans, J., Kon, O.M., Sihra, B., Larche, M., Levi-Schaffer, F. and Kay, A.B. (2000). Blood eosinophils from atopic donors express messenger RNA for the a, b, and g subunits of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FceRI) and intracellular, but not cell surface, a subunit protein. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 105:309-317.
Solomon, A., Shmilowich, R., Shasha, D., Frucht-Pery, J., Pe’er, J., Bonini, S. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2000). Conjunctival fibroblasts enhance the survival and functional activity of peripheral blood eosinophils in vitro. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41:1038-1044.
Simon, H-U., Weber, M., Becker, E., Zilberman, Y., Blaser, K. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2000). Eosinophils maintain their capacity to signal and release eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) upon repetitive stimulation with the same agonist. J. Immunol. 165:4069-75.
Hartman, M-L., Piliponsky, A.M., Temkin, V. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2001). Human peripheral blood eosinophils express stem cell factor. Blood. 97:1086-1091.
Touitou, E., Godin, B., Dayan, N., Weiss, C., Piliponsky, A. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2001). Intracellular delivery mediated by an ethosomal carrier. Biomaterials. 22:3053-3059.
Piliponsky, A.M., Pickholtz, D., Gleich, G.J. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2001). Human eosinophils induce histamine release from antigen-activated rat peritoneal mast cells: a possible role for mast cells in late-phase allergic reactions. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 107:993-1000.
Micera, A., Vigneti, E., Pickholtz, D., Reich, R., Pappo, O., Bonini, S., Maquart, F-X., Aloe, L. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2001). Nerve Growth Factor displays stimulatory effects on human skin and lung fibroblasts demonstrating a direct role for this factor in tissue repair. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:6162-6167. 
Hershko, A.Y., Dranitzki, Z., Ulmanski, R., Levi-Schaffer, F. and Naparstek, Y. (2001). Constitutive hyperhistaminaemia: a possible mechanism for recurrent anaphylaxis. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 61:449-452.
Temkin, V. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2001). Mechanism of tumour necrosis factor alpha mediated eosinophil survival. Cytokine. 15:20-26. 
82.       Hoenstein, R., Admon, D., Solomon, A., Norris, A., Moqbel, R. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2001). Interleukin-2 activates human peripheral blood eosinophils. Cell. Immunol. 210:116-124.
Zamir, E., Mechoulam, H., Micera, A., Levi-Schaffer, F. and Pe’er, J. (2002). Inflamed juvenile conjunctival naevus: clinicopathological characterisation. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86:28-30.
Garbuzenko, E., Nagler, A., Pickholtz, D., Gillery, P., Reich, R., Maquart, F-X. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2002). Human mast cells stimulate fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis and lattice contraction: a direct role for mast cells in skin fibrosis. Clin. Exp. Allergy. 32:237-246.
Xu, X., Pappo, O., Garbuzenko, E., Bischoff, S.C. Rivkind, A. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2002). Mast cell dynamics and involvement in the development of peritoneal adhesions in the rat. Life Sciences. 70:951-967.
Xu, X., Weksler-Zangen, S., Pikarsky, A., Pappo, O., Wengrower, D., Bischoff, S.C., Pines, M., Rivkind, A., Goldin, E. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2002). Mast cells involvement in the inflammation and fibrosis development of the TNBS induced rat model of colitis. Scand. J. Gastroenterology. 37:330-337.
Xu, X., Rivkind, A., Pappo, O., Pikarsky, A. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2002). Role of mast cells and myofibroblasts in human peritoneal adhesion formation. Ann. Surg. 236:593-601.
Shimizu, M., Levi-Schaffer, F., Ojima, N., Shingaki, T. and Masujima, T. (2002). A single-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectroscopic assay of the cell-maturation process. Anal. Sci. 18:107-108.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Micera, A., Zamir, E., Mechoulam, H., Puxeddu, I., Piliponsky, A.M., Aloe, L. and Pe’er, J. (2002). Nerve growth factor and eosinophils in inflamed juvenile conjunctival nevus. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43:1850-1856.
Smith, S.J., Piliponsky, A.M., Rosenhead, F., Elchalal, U., Nagler, A. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2002). Dexamethasone inhibits maturation, cytokine production and FceRI expression of human cord blood-derived mast cells. Clin. Exp. Allergy. 32:906-913.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Temkin, V., Simon, H.U., Kettman, J.R., Frey, J.R. and Lefkovits, I. (2002). Proteomic analysis of human eosinophil activation mediated by mast cells, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Proteomics. 2:1616-1626. 
Temkin, V., Kantor, B., Weg, V., Hartman, M.L. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2002). Tryptase activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein-1 pathway in human peripheral blood eosinophils, causing cytokine production and release. J. Immunol. 169:2662-2669. 
Phipps, S., Ying, S., Wangoo, A., Ong, Y.E., Levi-Schaffer, F. and Kay, A.B. (2002). The relationship between allergen-induced tissue eosinophilia and markers of repair and remodelling in human atopic skin. J. Immunol. 169:4604-4612.  
Piliponsky, A.M., Gleich, G.J., Nagler, A., Bar, I. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2003). Non-IgE-dependent activation of human lung- and cord blood-derived mast cells is induced by eosinophil major basic protein and modulated by the membrane form of stem cell factor. Blood. 101:1898-1904.
Simon, H.U., Plotz, S., Simon, D., Seitzer, U., Braathen, L.R., Menz, G., Straumann, A., Dummer, R. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2003). Interleukin-2 primes eosinophil degranulation in hypereosinophilia and Wells’ syndrome. Eur. J. Immunol. 33:834-839.  
Roberts, G., Patel, N., Levi-Schaffer, F., Habibi, P. and Lack, G. (2003). Food allergy as a risk factor for life-threatening asthma in childhood, a case-controlled study. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 112:168-174
Temkin, V., Pickholtz, D. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2003). Tumor necrosis factors in a murine model of allergic peritonitis: effects on eosinophil accumulation and inflammatory mediators’ release. Cytokine 24:74-80.
Temkin, V., Aingorn, H., Puxeddu, I., Goldshmidt, O., Zcharia, E., Gleich, G.J., Vlodavsky, I. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2004). Eosinophil major basic protein: first identified natural heparanase-inhibiting protein. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 113:703-709.
Xu, X., Rivkind, A., Pikarsky, A., Pappo, O., Bischoff S.C., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2004). Mast cells and eosinophils have a potential profibrogenic role in Crohn disease. Scand. J. Gastroenterology. 39:440-447.
Sellge, G., Lorentz, A., Gebhardt, T., Levi-Schaffer, F., Bektas, H., Manns, M.P., Schuppan, D. and Bischoff, S.C. (2004). Human intestinal fibroblasts prevent apoptosis in human intestinal mast cells by a mechanism independent of Stem Cell Factor, IL-3, IL-4 and Nerve Growth Factor. J. Immunol. 172:260-267. 
Puxeddu, I., Lack, G., Smith, S.J. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2004). Reduced eosinophil pro-fibrogenic effect in severe childhood asthma compared to mild disease: an effect of corticosteroids? Pediatr. Pulmonology 38:222-228.
Bischoff, S.C., Schwengberg, S., Lorentz, A., Manns, M.P., Bektas, H., Sann, H., Levi-Schaffer, F., Shanahan, F. and Schemann, M. (2004). Substance P and other neuropeptides do not induce mediator release in isolated human intestinal mast cells. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 16:185-193.
Garbuzenko, E., Puxeddu, I., Levi-Schaffer, F., Berkman, N., Kramer, M. and Nagler, A. (2004) Mast cells induce activation of human lung fibroblasts in vitro. Exp. Lung Res. 30:705-721.
Puxeddu, I., Alian, A., Piliponsky, A.M., Ribatti, D., Panet, A. and Levi-Schaffer F. (2005) Human peripheral blood eosinophils induce angiogenesis. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 37:628-636.
Munitz, A., Bachelet, I., Fraenkel, S., Katz, G., Mandelboim, O., Simon, H.U., Moretta, L., Colonna, M. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2005) 2B4 (CD244) is expressed and functional on human eosinophils. J. Immunol. 174:110-118.
Micera, A., Puxeddu, I., Lambiase, A., Antonelli, A., Bonini, S., Bonini, St., Aloe, L., Pe'er, J., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2005) The pro-fibrogenic effect of nerve growth factor on conjunctival fibroblasts is mediated by transforming growth factor-b. Clin. Exp. Allergy 35:650-656.
Uings, I., Puxeddu, I., Temkin, V., Smith, S.J., Fattah, D., Ray, K.P. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2005) Effects of dexamethasone on TNF-alpha-induced release of cytokines from purified human blood eosinophils. Clin. Mol. Allergy 27:3:5.
Solomon, A., Wajngarten, M., Alviano, F., Anteby, I., Elchalal, U., Pe'er, J. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2005) Suppression of  inflammatory and fibrotic responses in allergic inflammation by the amniotic membrane stromal matrix. Clin. Exp. Allergy 35:941-948.
Bachelet, I., Munitz, A., Moretta, A., Moretta, L. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2005) The inhibitory receptor IRp60 (CD300a) is expressed and functional on human mast cells. J. Immunol. 175:7989-7995.
Puxeddu, I., Bader, R., Piliponsky, A.M., Reich, R., Levi-Schaffer, F. and Berkman, N. (2006) The CC-chemokine eotaxin/CCL11 has a selective pro-fibrogenic effect on human lung fibroblasts. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117:103-110.
Berent-Maoz, B., Piliponsky, A.M., Daigle, I., Simon, H-U., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2006) Human mast cells undergo TRAIL-induced apoptosis. J. Immunol. 176:2272-2278.
Munitz, A., Bachelet, I., Eliashar, R., Moretta, A., Moretta, L. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2006) The inhibitory receptor IRp60 (CD300a) suppresses the effects of IL-5, GM-CSF and eotaxin on human peripheral blood eosinophils. Blood 107:1996-2003. Erratum in: Blood. 2006 107:2612.
Bachelet, I., Munitz, A. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2006) Abrogation of allergic reactions by a bispecific antibody fragment linking IgE to CD300a. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol 117:1314-1320.
Munitz, A., Bachelet, I., Eliashar, R., Khodoun, M., Finkelman, F.D., Rothenberg M.E. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2006) CD48 is an allergen and IL-3-induced activation molecule on eosinophils. J. Immunol. 177:77-83.
Micera, A., Lambiase, A., Puxeddu, I., Luigi, A., Stampachiacchiere, B., Levi-Schaffer, F., Bonini, S. and Bonini, St. (2006) Nerve growth factor effect on human primary fibroblastic-keratocytes: possible mechanism during corneal healing. Exp. Eye Res. 83:747-757.
Bachelet, I., Munitz, A., Mankuta, D. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2006) Mast cell costimulation by CD226/CD112 (DNAM-1/Nectin-2): A novel interface in the allergic process. J. Biol. Chem. 281:27190-27196
Munitz, A., Bachelet, I. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2006) Reversal of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma by a bispecific antibody fragment linking CCR3 to CD300a. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 118:1082-1089.
Munitz, A., Bachelet, I. Finkelman F.D., Rothenberg, M.E. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2007) CD48 is critically involved in allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. Am. J. Respir Crit. Care Med. 175:911-918.
Hasgall, P., Bellehsen, L., Hammel, Il, Amichai, D. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2007) In vitro exposure to cigarette smoke activates eosinophils: implications for lung inflammation. The Internet J. Asthma, Allergy and Immunol. Vol 5, No. 2, ISSN: 1532-0642.
Kohan, M., Bader, M., Puxeddu, Il, Levi-Schaffer, F., Breuer, R. and Berkman, N. (2007) Enhanced osteopontin expression in a murine model of allergen-induced airway remodeling. Clin. Exp. Allergy 37:1444-1454.
Orouk, I., Bellehsen, L. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2007) Does exposure to cigarette smoke compromise mast cell function? Implications for chronic lung inflammation and host defense against pathogens. The Internet J. Asthma, Allergy and Immunol. Vol 6, No. 1, ISSN: 1532-0642.
Salamon, P., Shoham, N.G., Puxeddu, Il, Paitan, Y., Levi-Schaffer, F. and Mekori, Y.A. (2008) Human mast cells release oncostatin M on contact with activated T cells: possible biologic relevance. J. Allergy Clin. Immun. 121:448-455.
Berent-Maoz, B., Salemi, S., Mankuta, D., Simon, H.U., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2008) TRAIL mediated signaling in human mast cells: the influence of IgE-dependent activation. Allergy. 63:333-340. Erratum in: Allergy 2009 64:666.
Bachelet, I., Munitz, A., Berent-Maoz, B., Mankuta, D., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2008) Suppression of normal and malignant Kit signaling by a bispecific antibody linking Kit with CD300a. J. Immunology 180:6064-6069.
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Rocha-de-Souza, C.M., Berent-Maoz, B., Mankuta, D., Moses, A.E., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2008) Human mast cell activation by Staphylococcus aureus: IL-8 and TNF-α release and the role of Toll-Like receptor 2 and CD48 molecules. Infect Immun. 76:4489-4497.
Ben-Yehuda, C., Bader, R., Puxeddu I., Levi-Schaffer, F., Breuer, R., Berkman, N. (2008) Airway eosinophil accumulation and eotaxin-2/CCL24 expression following allergen challenge in BALB/c mice. Exp. Lung Res. 34:467-479.
Puxeddu, I., Berkman, N., Nissim Ben Efraim, A.H., Davies, D.E., Ribatti, D., Gleich, .G.J., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2009). The role of eosinophil major basic protein in angiogenesis. Allergy  64:368-374.
Ben Efraim, A.H., Munitz, A., Sherman, Y., Mazer, B.D., Levi-Schaffer, F., Eliashar, R. (2009). Efficient puriifcation of eosinophils from human tissues: a comparative study. J. Immunol. Methods 343:91-96.
Puxeddu, I., Berkman, N., Ribatti, D., Bader, R., Haitchi, H.M., Davies, D.E., Howarth, P.H., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2010). Osteopontin is expressed and functional in human eosinophils. Allergy 65:168-174.
Kohan, M., Puxeddu, I., Reich, R., Levi-Schaffer, F., Berkman, N. (2010). Eotaxin-2/CCL24 and eotaxin-3/CCL26 exert differential profibrogenic effects on human lung fibroblasts. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 104:66-72.
Berent-Maoz, B., Salemi, S., Mankuta, D., Simon, HU, Levi-Schaffer, F. (2010) Human mast cells express intracellular TRAIL. Cell. Immunol. 262:80-83.
Viau, E., Levi-Schaffer, F., Peccia, J. (2010). Respiratory toxicity and inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to biosolids, animal manure, and agricultural soil particulate matter. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44:3142-3148.
Nissim Ben Efraim, A.H., Eliashar, R., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2010). Hypoxia modulates human eosinophil function. Clin. Mol. Allergy. 8:10.
Minai-Fleminger, Y., Elishmereni, M., Vita, F., Soranzo, M.R., Mankuta, D., Zabucchi, G., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2010) Ultrastructural evidence for human mast cell-eosinophil interactions in vitro. Cell Tissue Res. 341:405-415.
Lankry, D., Simic, H., Klieger, Y., Levi-Schaffer, F., Jonjic, S., Mandelboim, O. (2010) Expression and function of CD300 in NK cells. J. Immunol. 185:2877-2886.
Amer, R., Rabinowich, L., Maftsir, G., Puxeddu, I., Levi-Schaffer, F., Solomon, A. (2010). Mycophenolic acid suppresses human pterygium and normal tenon fibroblast proliferation in vitro. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94:1373-1377.
Amer, R., Rabinowich, L., Maftsir, G., Puxeddu, I., Levi-Schaffer, F., Solomon, A. (2010). Mycophenolic acid suppresses human pterygium and normal tenon fibroblast proliferation in vitro. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94:1373-1377.
Elishmereni, M., Alenius, H.T., Bradding, P., Mizrahi, S., Shikotra, A., Minai-Fleminger, Y., Mankuta, D., Eliashar, R., Zabucchi, G., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2011) Physical interactions between mast cells and eosinophils: A novel mechanism enhancing eosinophil survival in vitro. Allergy  66:376-385.
Cohen, S., Efraim, A.N., Levi-Schaffer, F., Eliashar, R. (2011). The effect of hypoxia and cycloxygenase inhibitors on nasal polyp derived fibroblasts. Am. J. Otolaryngol., Feb 9 [Epub ahead of print].
Berent-Maoz, B., Gur, C., Vita, F., Soranzo, M.R., Zabucchi, G., Levi-Schaffer F. (2011). Influence of FAS on murine mast cell maturation. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 106:239-44.
Shpacovitch, V.M., Feld, M., Holzinger, D., Kido, M., Hollenberg, M.D., Levi-Schaffer, F., Vergnolle, N., Ludwig, S., Roth. J., Luger. T., Steinhoff, M. (2011) Role of proteinase-activated receptor-2 in anti-bacterial and immunomodulatory effects of interferon-γ on human neutrophils and monocytes.Immunology. 133:329-39.
Pickholtz, E., Admon, D., Izhar, U., Neville Berkman, N., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2011). Dexamethasone and salbutamol stimulate human lung fibroblast proliferation. WAO J., 4:249-256.
Stoyanov, E., Uddin, M. Mankuta, D., Dubinett, S.M., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2012) Mast cells and histamine enhance the proliferation of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cells. Lung Cancer 75:38-44.
Sabato, V., Verweij, M.M, Bridts, C.H., Levi-Schaffer, F., Gibbs, B.F., De Clerck, L.S., Schiavino, D., Ebo, D.G. (2011). CD300a is expressed on human basophils and seems to inhibit IgE/FceRI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation. Cytometry Part B (Clinical Cytometry) doi: 10.1002/cyto.b.21003. [Epub ahead of print]
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Levi-Schaffer, F. (1999). Cross-talk between mast cells and eosinophils. Allergy. 54, suppl. 58:36-38.  
Piliponsky, A.M., Pickholtz, D., Gleich, G.J. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (1999). Eosinophils activate mast cells to release histamine. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 118:202-203.
Bonini, S., Lambiase, A., Bonini, S., Levi-Schaffer, F. and Aloe, L. (1999). Nerve growth factor: an important molecule in allergic inflammation and tissue remodelling. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 118:159-162.  
Piliponsky, A.M. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2000). Regulation of apoptosis in mast cells. Apoptosis. 5:435-441.   
Simon, H-U., Haj-Yehia, A. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2000). Role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in apoptosis induction. Apoptosis. 5:415-418.   
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Maurer, M., Theoharides, T., Granstein, R.D., Bischoff, S.C., Bienenstock, J. Henz, B., Kovanen, P., Piliponsky, A.M., Kambe, N., Vliagoftis, H., Levi-Schaffer, F., Metz, M., Miyachi, Y., Befus, D., Forsythe, P., Kitamura, Y., Galli, S. (2003) What is the physiological function of mast cells? Exp. Dermatol. 12: 886-910.  
Micera, A., Puxeddu, I., Aloe, L. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2003) New insights on the involvement of Nerve Growth Factor in allergic inflammation and fibrosis. Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews 14:369-374.  
Solomon, A., Puxeddu, I. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2003) Fibrosis in ocular allergic inflammation: recent concepts in the pathogenesis of ocular allergy. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 3:389-393.  
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Elishmereni, M., Bachelet, I., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2008) DNAM-1: An amplifier of immune responses as a therapeutic target in various disorders. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 9(5):491-496.
Ribatti D, Levi-Schaffer F., Kovanen, P.T. (2008) Inflammatory angiogenesis in atherogenesis - a doubled-edged sword. Ann Med. 40:606-621.
Nissim Ben Ephraim, A.H., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2008) Tissue remodeling and angiogenesis in asthma: the role of the eosinophil. Ther.. Adv. Resp. Disease 2:163-171.
Minai-Fleminger, Y., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2009). Mast cells and eosinophils: the two key effector cells in allergic inflammation. Inflamm. Res. 2009 58:631-638.
Karra, L., Berent-Maoz, B., Ben-Zimra, M., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2009) Are we ready to downregulate mast cells? Curr. Opin. Immunol. 21:708-714.
Levi-Schaffer, F., Eliashar R. (2009). Mast cell stabilizing properties of antihistamines. J. Invest. Dermatol. 129:2549-2551. (Comment)
Ribatti, D., Puxeddu, I., Crivellato, E., Nico, B., Vacca, A., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2009) Angiogenesis in asthma. Clin. Exp. Allergy 39:1815-1821.
Elishmerini, M., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2011) CD48: A co-stimulatory receptor of immunity. Int. J. Biochem Cell Biol. 43:25–28.
Gibbs, B.F., Levi-Schaffer, F. (2012). H4 receptors in mast cells and basophils: a new therapeutic target for allergy? Front. Biosci. 17:430-437.
Levi-Schaffer F., Bachelet, I., Munitz, A., Moretta, L. and Moretta, A. Bi-specific complexes for targeting cells involved in allergic-type reactions, compositions and uses thereof. International Application No. PCT/IL2005/000358. Filing Date: March 30, 2005.
Levi-Schaffer F., Bachelet, I., Rothenberg M.E., Munitz, A., Bachelet, I. CD48 as a novel target for anti-asthmatic and anti-allergic therapy and as a marker for early prediction of allergy. US Provisional Patent Application No. 60/772,883. Filing Date: February 14, 2006
Levi-Schaffer F., Mizrahi, S., Ben Zimra, M., Karra, L. Treatment of mast cell related pathologies. US Provisional Patent. Filing Date: August 15, 2011.



drugs, mast cells, eosinophils, allergy, asthma, fibrosis, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, antibodies, receptors, ligands, inflammation, mastocytosis/mast cell leukemia, treatment 



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